In 2015, Thailand declared its intention to achieve Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) by reducing greenhouse gases 7-20% relative to BAU by 2020.
Latest NAMA Tracking has found that Thailand can reduce greenhouse gas emissions up to 14% of the target or 51.72 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MtCO2eq). The NAMA Tracking has been done by the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) and the Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization (Independent organization) under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment together with the Energy Policy and Planning Office Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency And the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand under the Ministry of Energy.
In the five-year period from 2013 - 2017, Thailand could reduce greenhouse gas by 4%, 10%, 11%, 12% and 14%. respectively.
These figures will be included in the next Biennial Update Report (BUR) and will be presented to the United Nations Secretary-General on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to confirm the commitment of Thailand's effort on climate change mitigation.
After achieving its goal of greenhouse reduction in 2020, the next step for Thailand is to participate in the Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) by aiming to greenhouse gas by 20-25% relative to BAU by 2030.
Guidelines for the implementation of the Thailand Greenhouse Gas Reduction in 2021-2030 is called NDC Roadmap. The guideline will be implemented by departments through three main sectors, namely Energy and Transportation sector, Industrial process and Product usage sector and Waste management sector. These sectors are part of departments' operational plan and have the potential to successfully attain the emission target.
The operation plan of the three sectors consists of 15 measures which account for the potential 20.8% of greenhouse gas reduction or 115.6 million tons of carbon dioxide in total by 2030.
In the energy sector, the measures include, for example, increasing efficiency in electricity generation and strengthening energy efficiency in households, factories and transportation. This sector has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas by 113 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent.
Regarding waste management sector, the measures will focus on garbage and wastewater management and it could contribute up to 2 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. As for the industrial process and Product usage sector will stress on industrial production process modifications representing the potential reduction of greenhouse gas by 0.6 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent.
Factors affecting the success of Thailand are partly from the establishment of mechanisms and operational plans including navigation maps and institutional structure at national and ministerial levels.
These mechanisms create a network of cooperation among agencies to consider the appropriate measures for greenhouse gas emission and develop methods for calculating greenhouse gas reduction results in accordance with national targets.
The current figures prove that the plan introduces by the Ministry of Energy has been implemented effectively, being the Renewable and Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP), the Energy Conservation Plan (EEP) and the Thailand Power Development Plan (PDP). These plans, for instance, promote alternative energy for electricity and heat production, increasing the efficiency of the power plant, introducing the alternative fuels in the automobile or using energy efficiency labels on electric appliances.
The next challenge is the selection of new measures, provide the basic ideas or structures and developing the calculation methods for greenhouse gas reduction to achieve the NDC goal. Some measures may require cooperation from the private sector in order to acquire the specific data of each industry group to be included in the calculation of NDC.
In addition, Thailand must prepare legislation on climate change that requires relevant parties to report on greenhouse gas reductions consistently in the future.
The National Climate Change Policy Committee (PWA) has approved, during the meeting on November 15, 2019, the monitoring report that assessed the greenhouse gas reduction from energy sector in 2017 to be included in the next two-year progress report (the total reduction in 2017 was 51.72 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent).
At the same time, the committee also agreed that Thailand will participate in the Nitric Acid Climate Action Group (NACAG)'s initiative to promote the reduction of nitrous oxide from the nitric acid industry which will also be beneficial to Thailand's greenhouse gas reduction operations.
All of this progress is a reflection of Thailand's commitment to the global community by participating in climate change solutions in accordance to its a capability, for every country has a share in its responsibility for the world we are living in.